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雅思

雅思写作语法禁区

文字:[大][中][小] 2015-1-19    浏览次数:979    

    通常在雅思考试的听、说、读、写四项中,中国考生在写作单项上分数最低,而且在全世界排名也处于较低水平,甚至低于邻国印度。究其原因,专家分析认为以下几点因素不容忽视。
    一、 眼高手低,疏于练习
    写作相对听、说和读来说比较耗时伤神;部分考生拿到作文题,不知该如何下笔,全无思路;写作比较主观,“烤鸭们”经过一两次的练习后,不像听力和阅读一样知道自己的错误所在,感觉看不到明显的进步和提升,失去写作动力和激情等等。这些因素导致注定他们大部分不能成为多产的“烤鸭”,甚至有些考生在上战场前,一篇作文都未曾练习过。试问,像这种情况考生如何能拿高分?
    针对这种情况,给大家的建议是:考生作文想考6-6.5分,首先大小作文至少各练习10-15篇,其次,一定要有专业老师的修改和feedback, 否则,即使写了千百篇也是徒劳无功,至多也只是锻炼到了写作速度,除此之外,考生也一定要总结和改正之前作文的不良之处,这样才能得到真正意义上的进步,否则,前两步也只会是meaningless。
    二、 语法输出功底较差
    中国学生的语法本应该是不错的,从初中到大学,我们的课堂上不断地学习语法知识,英语测试中都有大量的语法选择题。但是有趣的是,一到雅思写作就完全不行了。这说明了一个问题,其实中国学生的语法不差,知识不会运用在写作上,缺乏主动输出的能力。同时,汉语和英语的确有很多不同。比如说,I am of the former for the following reasons. 而不能说because of the following reasons. 或者也可以说I am of the former for the following factors. 所以汉语说“我支持前者  因为以下原因”翻译成英语时应按照英文表达习惯,否则按照汉语惯性思维容易写出英语错句。
    三、 汉语思维影响
    中国学生大多数都是用汉式思维来构思文章,然后再用英语表达出来或者说翻译出来。这样,很容易导致一些错误,例如,“现在越来越多的人选择出国留学。”这句话,很多学生按照汉语直接翻译出来的版本是:“Nowadays, there are more and more people choose to study abroad.”此句有语法错误,主句中有两个谓语动词,应改成“Nowadays, there are more and more people who choose to study abroad.”或“Nowadays, there are more and more people choosing to study abroad.”
    在长期的雅思教学和批阅大量的学生习作的过程中,专家发现,中国学生的雅思写作错误惊人的相似。在经过仔细的整理和筛选后,这些错误被分成了七大类,并附上学生例句作为负面教材,以及分析和修正版例句。
    1. 双谓语错句
e.g. For those under 26, there were 80% students study for career.
    There be句型属于双谓语错句高发句型,因为句中的be动词已经是谓语,而句子后面的动词通常是定语从句中的成分,故不能作为主句中的谓语。例句中同时出现了“were”和“study”,根据上面的分析,were应该是谓语,而study for career应该是定语从句,因此,例句应修正改成:
For those under 26, there were 80% students who studied for career. 或者For those under 26, there were 80% students studying for career.
又如:Causes for this phenomenon are comprehensive but the major reasons contribute to this problem can be identified from three perspectives.应改成:
Causes for this phenomenon are comprehensive but the major reasons contributing/which contribute to this problem can be identified from three perspectives.
    2. 句子不完整
    e.g. The most popular kind of transport was by road.
    句中主语是the most popular kind of transport,谓语动词(系动词)是was, 而by road按照语法应该是方式状语,此句缺乏表语。应改成:
The most popular kind of transport was road.
又如:Many factories in order to get more profits, which made waste water and waste gas.
去除目的状语“in order to get more profits”和非限制性定语从句“which made waste water and waste gas”, 剩下的是many factories, 不能作为一个句子。根据此句想表达的意思,应改为:
Many factories in order to get more profits made waste water and waste gas.
3. 主系表结构使用错误
e.g. We are impossible to make any progress without correcting the mistakes.
此句的主干结构是:we are impossible“我们是不可能”,表意不对。这种表达在英语中对应的句型是:It is…for…to…, 所以应该改成:
It is impossible for us to make any progress without correcting the mistakes.
类似的错误例句还有:People are very convenient to get information on the Internet. His profession is a teacher.
4. 情态动词后的动词原形和动名词的使用出错
e.g. Another equally vital point to be considered is that building them may costs much money and energy.
这种错误可能是笔误,在雅思作文中偶尔出现不至于扣分,但是通篇都是这样的错误,那么肯定是有影响的。
e.g. Another point to be discussed is that more time spending on computers is harmful to children’s mental health.
“花更多时间在电脑上”这个动词短语作为主语应该要用动名词形式:
Another point to be discussed is that spending more time on computers is harmful to children’s mental health.
5. 标点符号用错
e.g. As far as I am concerned, people should take exercise and relax themselves on a weekly basis. Because it offers great opportunities to release their stress.
Because引导的句子做原因状语从句,既然是从句,那么前面就不应该使用句号使其独立成句,而应该改成逗号,because首字母小写。
6. 词性使用错误
e.g. One possible solution is using the new energy to instead of the traditional energy.
Instead of是介词,而这里构成to do(不定式),只能用动词。因此,可改为:
One possible solution is using the new energy to replace the traditional energy.
e.g. Nowadays, some students study many subjects in university, which leads to that they suffer great mental pressure.
Lead to中to是介词,后面不能直接加句子,因此可在leads to后加一名词,构成同位语从句:
Nowadays, some students study many subjects in university, which leads to the fact that they suffer great mental pressure. 或Nowadays, some students study many subjects in university, which makes them suffer great mental pressure.
7. 从句的误用和滥用
e.g. The reason why I assert it is necessary for government to provide better education and health care for rural areas because it can ensure all citizens to have access to them.
“why…rural areas”在句中作the reason的定语,固定句式“the reason why…is that…”why引导的定语从句和that引导的表语从句连用,气势磅礴,这就是所谓的高分句型。
e.g. In this essay, I will discuss what those, who are two kinds of people in this topic, are how to think and how to choose. 实再迂回婉转,不知所云。
除了上面所列其中语法错误情况以外,常见语法错误还包括:主谓一致,时态,特殊句型(如倒装句,强调句等)使用错误以及逻辑问题等。
希望众考生能多练笔,给老师批改。把常犯的错误记下来,分析错误的成因,在以后的练习中提醒自己不要再犯。只要这样坚持一段时间,相信you can make a difference。

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